bandhur atmatmanas tasya yenatmaivatmana jitah anatmanas tu satrutve vartetatmaiva satruvat"For him who has conquered the mind, the mind is the best of friends; but for one who has failed to do so, his very mind will be the greatest enemy," (Bg. 6.6)
The purpose of the yoga system is to make the mind into a friend instead of a enemy. In material contact, the mind is in a kind of drunken condition. As stated in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madya-lila 20.117),
krsna bhuli' sei jiva---anadi-bahirmukha ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha"Forgetting Krsna, the living entity has been attracted by the Lord's external feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy (maya) gives him all kinds of misery in his material existence." The living entity is constitutionally spirit soul, part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. As soon as the mind is contaminated, the living entity, because he has a little independence, rebels. In this state, the mind dictates, "Why should I serve Krsna? I am God." Thus one labors under a false impression, and his life is spoiled. We try to conquer many things-even empires-but if we fail to conquer the mind, we are failures even if we manage to conquer an empire. Even though emperors, we will have within us our greatest enemy-our mind.
jitatmanah prasantasya paramatma samahitah sitosna-sukha-dhukhesu tatha manapamanayoh"For one who has conquered the mind, the Supersoul is already reached, for he has attained tranquillity. To such a man happiness and distress, heat and cold, honor and dishonor are all the same." (Bg. 6.7)
Actually, every living entity is intended to abide by the dictation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is seated in everyone's heart as Paramatma. When the mind is misled by the external illusory energy, one becomes entangled in material activities. Therefore, as soon as one's mind is controlled through one of the yoga systems, one is to be considered as having already reached the destination. One has to abide by superior dictation. When the mind is fixed on the superior nature, he has no alternative but to follow the dictation of the Supreme. The mind must admit some superior dictation and follow it. When the mind is controlled, one automatically follows the dictation of the Paramatma, or Supersoul. Because this transcendental position is at once achieved by one who is in Krsna consciousness, the devotee of the Lord is unaffected by the dualities of material existence- distress and happiness, cold and heat, etc. This state is called samadhi, or absorption in the Supreme.
jnana-vijnana-trptatma kuta-stho vijitendriyah yukta ity ucyate yogi sama-lostrasma-kancanah"A person is said to be established in self-realization and is called a yogi [or mystic] when he is fully satisfied by virtue of acquired knowledge and realization. Such a person is situated in transcendence and is self-controlled. He sees everything- whether it be pebbles, stones, or gold- as the same." (Bg. 6.8)
Book knowledge without realization of the Supreme Truth is useless. This is stated as follows:
atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah"No one can understand the transcendental nature of the name, form, quality, and pastimes of Sri Krsna through his materially contaminated sense. Only when one becomes spiritually saturated by transcendental service to the Lord are the transcendental name, form, quality, and pastimes of the Lord revealed to him." (Padma Purana)
There are men in the modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance, and to reclaim all these conditioned souls, there are eighteen Puranas. Six Puranas are meant for those in the mode of goodness, six for those in the mode of passion, and six for those in the mode of ignorance. The Padma Purana is written for those in the mode of goodness. Because there are many different types of men, there are many different Vedic rituals. In the Vedic literatures there are descriptions of rituals and ceremonies in which a goat may be sacrificed in the presence of the goddess Kali. This is described in the Markandeya Purana, but this Purana is meant for the instruction of those in the mode of ignorance.
It is very difficult for one to give up his attachments all at once. If one is addicted to meat-eating and is suddenly told that he must not eat meat, he cannot do so. If one is attached to drinking liquor and is suddenly told that liquor is no good, he cannot accept this advice. Therefore, in the Puranas we find certain instructions that say in essence, "All right, if you want to eat meat, just worship the goddess Kali and sacrifice a goat for her. Only then can you eat meat. You cannot eat meat just by purchasing it from the butcher shop. No, there must be sacrifice or restriction." In order to sacrifice a goat to the goddess Kali, one must make arrangements for a certain date and utilize certain paraphernalia. That type of puja, or worship, is allowed on the night of the dark moon, which means once a month. There are also certain mantras to be chanted when the goat is sacrificed. The goat is told, "Yor life is being sacrificed before the goddess Kali; you will therefore be immediately promoted ot the human form." Generally, in order to attain the human form, a living entity has to pass through many species of life on the evolutionary scale, but if a goat is sacrificed to the goddess Kali, he is immediately promoted to the human form. The mantra also says, "You have the right to kill this man who is sacrificing you." The word mamsa indicates that in his next birth, the goat will eat the flesh of the man who is presently sacrificing him. This in itself should bring the goat-eater to his sense. He should consider, "Why am I eating this flesh? Why am I doing this? I'll have to repay with my own flesh in another life." The whole idea is to discourage one from eating meat.
Thus, because there are different types of men, there are eighteen Puranas to guide them. The Vedic literatures are meant to redeem all men, not just a few. It is not that those who are meat-eaters or drunkards are rejected. A doctor accepts all patients, and he prescribes different medicines according to the disease. It is not that he gives the same medicine for all diseases or that he treats just one disease. No, he offers a specific type of medicine to whomever comes, and the patient receives gradual treatment. However, the sattvic Puranas like the Padma Purana are meant for those in the mode of goodness, for those who immediately are capable of worshipping the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
In Brahma-samhita it is stated, isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah: "The supreme controller is Krsna, who has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body." This is the Vedic pronouncement, and we thus accept Sri Krsna as the Supreme Lord. Those who are in the modes of passion and ignorance attempt to imagine the form of God, and when they are confused, they say, "Oh, there is no personal God. God is impersonal, or void." This is just the result of frustration. Actually, God has His form. And why not? According to the Vedanta-sutra, janmady asya yatah: "The Supreme Absolute Truth is He from whom everything emanates." It is easy to see that we have different types of bodies, different types of forms. We must consider where these forms are coming from. Where have these forms originated? We have to use a little common sense. If God is not a person, how can His sons be persons? If your father is just a void, if he is not a person, how can you be a person? If your father has no form, how can you have a form? This is not very difficult; it is just a commonsense question. Unfortunately, because people are frustrated, they try to imagine some form, or they conclude that because this material form is temporary and troublesome, God must be formless. In the end, because all forms in this material world must perish, God, of necessity, must be formless.
Brahma-samhita specifically states that this conception is a mistake. Isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah. God has form, but His form is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. Sat means "eternal," cit means "knowledge," and ananda means "pleasure." God has form, but His form is eternal and is full of knowledge and pleasure. We cannot compare His form to our form. Our form is neither eternal, full of pleasure, nor full of knowledge; therefore God's form is different.
As soon as we speak of form, we think that form must be like our, and we therefore conclude that the eternal, all-knowing, and all-blissful God must be without form. This is not knowledge but the result of imperfect speculation. According to Padma Purana, atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih: "One cannot understand the form, name, quality, or paraphernalia of God with one's material sense." Since our senses are imperfect, we cannot speculate on Him who is supremely perfect. That is not possible.
Then how is it possible to understand Him? Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau. By training and purifying our senses, we may come to understand and see God. Presently we are attempting to understand God with impure, imperfect senses. It is like someone with cataracts trying to see. Just because one has cataracts, he should not conclude that there is nothing to be seen. similarly, we cannot presently conceive of God's form, but once our cataracts are removed, we can see. According to Brahma-samhita, premanjana-cchurita,-bhakti-vilocanena santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti: "The devotees whose eyes are anointed with the ointment of love of God can see God within their hearts twenty-four hours a day." Purification of the senses is what is required; then we can understand the name, form, qualities, and pastimes of God. Then we'll be able to see God everywhere and in everything.
These matters are discussed thoroughly in the Vedic literatures. For instance, it is said that although God has no hands or legs, He can accept whatever we offer (apani-pado javano grhita). It is also stated that although God has neither eyes nor ears, He can see and hear everything. These are apparent contradictions, but they are meant to teach us an important lesson. When we speak of seeing, we think of material vision. Due to our material conception, we think that the eyes of God must be like ours. Therefore, in order to remove these material conceptions, the Vedic literatures say that God has no hands, legs, eyes, ears, etc. God has eyes, but His vision is infinite. He can see in darkness, and He can see everywhere at once; therefore He has different eyes. Similarly, God has ears and can hear. He may be in His kingdom, millions and millions of miles away, but He can hear us whispering, because He is sitting within. We cannot avoid God's seeing, hearing, or touching.
patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati tad aham bhakty-upahrtam asnami prayatmanah"If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, fruit, or water, I will accept it." (Bg. 9.26) If God does not have senses, how can He accept and eat the offerings that are presented to Him? According to ritual, we are offering Krsna food daily, and we can see that the taste of this food is immediately changed. This is a practical example. God eats, but because He is full, He does not eat like us. If I offer you a plate of food, you will eat it, and it will be finished. God is not hungry, but He eats, and at the same time, He leaves the food as it is, and thus it is transformed into prasada. His mercy. Purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate, God is full, yet He accepts all the food that we offer. Still, the food remains as it is. He can eat with His eyes. As stated in Brahma-samhita, angani yasya sakalendriya-vrttimanti: "Every sense of the Lord's body has all the potencies of the other senses." Although we can see with our eyes, we cannot eat with our eyes. The senses of God, however, being infinite, are different. Simply by looking at the food that is offered to Him, He eats it.
This may not be understood at the present moment; therefore the Padma Purana states that when one becomes spiritually saturated by rendering transcendental service to the Lord, the transcendental name, form, qualities, and pastimes of the Lord are revealed. We cannot understand God by our own endeavor, but out of mercy God reveals Himself to us. If it is night, and you want to see the sun, you will have to wait for the sun to appear in the morning. You cannot go outside with a big torch and say, "Come on, I will show you the sunlight." In the morning, when the sun rises of its own will, we can see it. Because our senses are imperfect, we cannot see God by our own endeavor. We have to purify our senses and wait for the time when God will be pleased to reveal Himself to us. That is the process. We cannot challenge God. We cannot say, "O my dear God, my dear Krsna. Please come. I want to see You." No, God is not our order supplier. He is not our servant. When He is pleased, we will see Him; therefore this Krsna consciousness is a process by which we can please God so that He will reveal Himself to us.
Because people cannot see God, they readily accept anyone who says, "I am God." Because people have no conception of God, they are eager to accept any rascal who comes along and proclaims himself to be God. People are fond to saying, "I am searching after the truth," but in order to search for the truth, we must know what the truth is. Otherwise, how can we search it out? If we want to purchase gold, we must at least theoretically know what gold is, otherwise we will be cheated. Consequently, having no conception of the truth or of God, people are being cheated by so many rascals who say, "I am God." In a society of rascals, one rascal accepts another rascal as God, and this is all the result of rascaldom. But all this has nothing to do with God. One has to qualify himself to see and understand God, and that process of qualification is called Krsna consciousness. Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva spuraty adah: by engaging ourselves in God's service, we become qualified to see God. Otherwise it is not possible. We many be great scientists or scholars, but our mundane scholarship will not help us see God.
This Bhagavad-gita is the science of Krsna-consciousness, and in order to understand Krsna, we must be fortunate enough to associate with a person who is in pure Krsna consciousness. We cannot understand Bhagavad-gita simply by acquiring an M.A., Ph.D., or whatever. Bhagavad-gita is transcendental science, and it requires different senses in order to be understood. Our senses must be purified by the rendering of service, not by the acquiring of academic degrees. There are many Ph.D.'s, many scholars, who cannot understand Krsna. Therefore Krsna appears in the material world. Although He is unborn (ajo 'pi sann avayayatma), He comes to reveal Himself to us.
Thus Krsna is realized by the grace of Krsna or by the grace of a Krsna conscious person who has realized Krsna by the grace of Krsna. We cannot understand Him through academic knowledge. We can only understand Krsna by acquiring the grace of Krsna. Once we acquire His grace, we can see Him, talk with Him-do whatever we desire. It is not that Krsna is a void. He is person, the Supreme Person, and we can have a relationship with Him. That is the Vedic injunction. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam: "We are all eternal persons, and God is the supreme eternal person." We are all eternal, and God is the supreme eternal. Presently, because we are encaged within these bodies, we are experiencing birth and death, but actually we are beyond birth and death. We are eternal spirit souls, but according to our work and desired, we are transmigrating from one body to another. It is explained in the Second Chapter of Bhagavad-gita (2.20),
na jayate mriyate va kadacin nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah ajo nityah sasvato yam purano na hanyate hanyamane sarire"For the soul there is never birth nor death. Nor, having once been, does he ever cease to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying, and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain."
Just as God is eternal, we are also eternal, and when we establish our eternal relationship with the supreme, complete eternal, we realize our eternality. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam. God is the supreme living entity among all living entities, the supreme eternal among all eternals. By Krsna consciousness, by purification of the senses, this knowledge will be realized, and we will come to see God.
A Krsna conscious person has realized knowledge, by the grace of Krsna, because he is satisfied with pure devotional service. By realized knowledge, one becomes prefect. By transcendental knowledge one can remain steady in his convictions, but by mere academic knowledge one can be easily deluded and confused by apparent contradictions. It is the realized soul who is actually self-controlled, because he is surrendered to Krsna. He is transcendental because he has nothing to do with mundane scholarship. For him, mundane scholarship and mental speculation, which may be as good as gold to others, are of no greater value that pebbles or stones.
Even if one is illiterate, he can realize God simply by engaging himself in submissive, transcendental loving service. God is not subjected to any material condition. He is supreme spirit, and the process of realizing Him is also beyond material considerations. Therefore, one may be a very learned scholar and still not be able to understand God. One should not think that because he is very poor he cannot realize God; nor should one think that he can realize God just because he is very rich. God may be understood by an uneducated person and misunderstood by one with great education. The understanding of God, like God Himself, is unconditional (apratihata).
In Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.6) it is stated,
sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje ahaituky apratihata yayatma suprasidati"The supreme occupation (dharma) for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendental Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted to completely satisfy the self." Cultivation of love of God: that is the definition of first-class religion. Just as there are there gunas, or there qualities, in the material world, there are various religions, each situated in one of the three modes. We are not, however, concerned with analyzing these religious conceptions. For us, the purpose of religion is to understand God and to learn how to love God. That is the real purpose of any first-class religious system. If a religion does not teach love of God, it is useless. One may follow his religious principles very carefully, but if one does not possess love of God, his religion is null and void. According to Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.6) real religion must be ahaituki and apratihata: without selfish motivation and without impediment. By practicing such a religion, we will become happy in all respects.
Sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje. Another name for God is adhoksaja, which means "one who cannot be seen by materialistic attempts." That is to say that God conquers all our attempts to see Him materially. The word aksaja refers to experimental knowledge, and adhah means "unreachable." So God cannot be reached through experimental knowledge. We have to learn to contact Him in a different way: through submissive hearing and the rendering of transcendental loving service.
True religion teaches causeless love of God. It does not say, "I love God because He supplies me nice objects for my sense gratification." That is not love. God is great, God is our eternal father, and it is our duty to love Him. There is no question of barter or exchange. We should not think, "Oh, God gives me my daily bread; therefore I love God." God gives daily bread even to the cats and dogs. Since He is the father of everyone, He is supplying everyone food. So loving God for daily bread is not love. Love is without reason. Even if God does not supply us our daily bread, we should love Him. That is true love. As Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, aslisya va pada-ratam pinastu mam adarsanan marma-hatam karotu va: "I know no one but Krsna as my Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles me roughly by His embrace or makes me broken-hearted by not being present before me. He is completely free to do anything and everything, for He is always my worshipful Lord, unconditionally." That is the sentiment of one who is established in pure love of God. When we attain that stage of love of God, we will find that everything is full of pleasure; God is full of pleasure, and we also are full of pleasure.
suhrn-mitrary-udasina- madhyastha-dvesya-bandhusu sadhusv api ca papesu sama-budhir visisyate"A person is said to be still further advanced when he regards all-the honest well-wisher, friends and enemies, the envious, the pious, the sinner, and those who are indifferent and impartial- with an equal mind." (Bg. 6.9) This is a sign of real spiritual advancement. In this material world we are considering people friends and enemies on the bodily platform- that is, on the basis of sense gratification. If one gratifies our senses, he is our friend, and if he doesn't , he is our enemy. However, once we have realized God, or the Absolute Truth, there are no such material considerations.
In this material world, all conditioned souls are under illusion. A doctor treats all patients, and although a patient may be delirious and insult the doctor, the doctor does not refuse to treat him. He still administers the medicine that is required. As Lord Jesus Christ said, we should hate the sin, not the sinner. That is a very nice statement, because the sinner is under illusion. He is mad. If we hate him, how can we deliver him? Therefore, those who are advanced devotees, who are really servants of God, do not hate anyone. When Lord Jesus Christ was being crucified, he said, "My God, forgive them. They know not what they do." This is the proper attitude of an advanced devotee. He understands that the conditioned souls cannot be hated, because they have become mad due to their materialistic way of thinking. In this Krsna consciousness movement, there is no question of hating anyone. Everyone is welcomed to come and chant Hare Krsna, take krsna-prasada, listen to the philosophy of Bhagavad-gita, and try to rectify material, conditioned life. This is the essential program of Krsna consciousness. Therefore, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu said,
yare dekha, tare kaha 'krsna'-upadesa amara ajnaya guru hana tara ' ei desa"Instruct everyone to follow the orders of Lord Sri Krsna as they are given in Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam. In this way become a spiritual master and try to liberate everyone in this land." (Cc. Madhya 7.128)
yogi yunjita satatam atmanam rahasi sthitah ekaki yata-cittatma nirasir aparigrahah"A transcendentalist should always try to concentrate his mind on the Supreme Self; he should live alone in a secluded place and should always carefully control his mind. He should be free from desires and feelings of possessiveness." (Bg. 6.10)
In this chapter, in which the Lord is teaching the principles of the yoga system, He here points out that a transcendentalist should always try to concentrate his mind on the Supreme Self. "The Supreme Self" refers to Krsna, the Supreme Lord. As explained before (nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam), God is the supreme eternal, the supreme living entity, the Supreme Self. The purpose of the entire yoga system is to concentrate the mind on this Supreme Self. We are not the Supreme Self. That should be understood. The Supreme Self is God. This is dvaita-vada-duality. Duality means that God is different from me. He is supreme, and I am subordinate. He is great, and I am small. He is infinite, and I am infinitesimal. This is the relationship between ourselves and god as we should understand it. Because we are infinitesimal, we should concentrate our mind on the infinite Supreme Self. In order to do this, we should live alone, and "living alone" means that we should not live with those who are not Krsna conscious. Ideally, this means that one should live in a secluded place, like a forest or a jungle, but in this age such a secluded place is very difficult to find. Therefore "secluded place" refers to that place where God consciousness is taught.
The transcendentalist should also carefully control his mind, and this means fixing the mind on the Supreme Self, or Krsna. As explained before, Krsna is just like the sun, and if the mind is fixed on Him, there is no question of darkness. If Krsna is always in our minds, maya, or illusion, can never enter. This is the process of concentration.
The transcendentalist should also be free from desires and feelings of possessiveness. People are materially diseased because they desire things and want to possess them. We desire that which we do not have, and we lament for that which we have lost. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma. One who is actually God conscious does not desire material possessions. He has only one desire- to serve Krsna. It is not possible to give up desire, but it is possible to purify our desires. It is the nature of the living entity to have some desire, but in the conditioned state, one's desire is contaminated. Conditioned, one thinks, "I desire to satisfy my senses by material possession." Purified desire is desire for Krsna, and if we desire Krsna, desires for material possessions will automatically vanish.
sucau dese pratisthapya sthiram asanam atmanah naty-ucchritam nati-nicam cailajina-kusottaram tatraikagram manah krtva yata-cittendriya-kriyah upavisyasane yunjyad yogam atma-visuddaye"To practice yoga, one should go to a secluded place and should lay kusa grass on the ground and then cover it with a deerskin and a soft cloth. The seat should neither be too high not too low and should be situated in a sacred place. The yogi should then sit on it very firmly and should practice yoga by controlling the mind and the senses, purifying the heart, and fixing the mind on one point." (Bg. 6.11 - 12) In these verses it is emphasized how and where one should sit. In the United States and other Western countries, there are many so-called yoga societies, but they do not practice yoga according to these prescriptions. "A sacred place" refers to a place of pilgrimage. In India the yogis, the transcendentalists, or devotees, all leave home and reside in sacred places such as Prayaga, Mathura, Vrndavana, Hrsikesa, and Hardwar and in solitude practice yoga where the sacred rivers like the Yamuna and the Ganges flow. So how is this possible in this age? How many people are prepared to find such a sacred place? In order to earn one's livelihood, one has to live in a congested city. There is no question of finding a sacred place, but for the practice of yoga, that is the first prerequisite.
Therefore in this bhakti-yoga system, the temple is considered the sacred place. The temple is nirguna- transcendental. According to the Vedas, a city is in the mode of passion, and a forest is in the mode of goodness. The temple, however, is transcendental. If you live in a city or town, you live in a place where passion is predominant, and if you want to escape this, you may go to a forest, a place of goodness. God's temple, however, is above passion and goodness; therefore the temple of Krsna is the only secluded place for this age, it is not possible to retreat to a forest; nor is it useful to make a show of practicing yoga in so-called yoga societies and at the same time engage in nonsense.
Therefore, in the Brhan-naradiya Purana it is said that in Kali-yuga, when people are generally short-lived, show in spiritual realization, and always disturbed by various anxieties, the best means of spiritual realization is chanting the holy names of the Lord.
harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy, the only means of deliverance is chanting the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way."
This is the solution, the grand gift of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In this age, other yoga practices are not feasible, but this practice is so simple and universal that even a child can take to it.